Flag of the Arab League , used in some cases for the Arabic language Flag used in some cases for the Arabic language Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz — Arabic usually designates one of three main variants: In practice, however, modern authors almost never write in pure Classical Arabic, instead using a literary language with its own grammatical norms and vocabulary, commonly known as Modern Standard Arabic MSA. MSA is the variety used in most current, printed Arabic publications, spoken by some of the Arabic media across North Africa , and the Middle East , and understood by most educated Arabic speakers. Certain grammatical constructions of CA that have no counterpart in any modern dialect e. No modern spoken variety of Arabic has case distinctions. As a result, MSA is generally composed without case distinctions in mind, and the proper cases are added after the fact, when necessary. Because most case endings are noted using final short vowels, which are normally left unwritten in the Arabic script, it is unnecessary to determine the proper case of most words. The practical result of this is that MSA, like English and Standard Chinese , is written in a strongly determined word order and alternative orders that were used in CA for emphasis are rare. In addition, because of the lack of case marking in the spoken varieties, most speakers cannot consistently use the correct endings in extemporaneous speech. As a result, spoken MSA tends to drop or regularize the endings except when reading from a prepared text.
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The flower of this plant was commercially cultivated for use as a dye in the Mediterranean region in medieval times. But the source of the English word was medieval Italian. The “-fur” or “-far” part of the Arabic word mutated in Italian to “-flore -fiore” which is Italian for flower.
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This dramatic event, counted as Seleucus’ first regal year, was continued as the Seleucid Era, the first continuous count of time in world chronology, soon to inspire the similar Arsacid Era of Parthia. There is also the residual uncertainty about Hellenistic dating. Bickerman, for instance, positively asserted that Seleucus reconquered Babylon “in August of ” [Chronology of the Ancient World, Cornell University Press, , , , p. Seleucus] was given a thousand men by Ptolemy and set out from Palestine to Babylonia” [Dividing the Spoils, Oxford, , p.
While we may have more confidence in up-to-date scholarship, sometimes older analyses are later vindicated. As recounted above , Seleucus had to fend off two major efforts against him to recover Babylon for Antigonus Monophthalmos. With Babylon secure, he was able to take control of the vast Iranian hinterland, the geographical bulk of Alexander’s Empire.
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This monumental Qur’anic manuscript on parchment showing a well-formed kufic script, written in dark-brown ink with sparse diacritical marks and no ornamentation. Total number of folios are A monumental Qur’anic manuscript on parchment showing a well-formed kufic script. The script is slightly sloping backwards with tall ascenders and is strongly reminiscent of the type of well executed kufic script exhibited during the Umayyad period.
There is no vocalisation and a very limited amount of consonantal pointing i. Groups of five verses are marked with medallions and square cartouches containing quatrefoil emblems are used to indicate groups of ten verses. This manuscript was written in kufic script and contains folios. The script is slightly sloping backwards and is reminiscent of the type of well-executed kufic script exhibited during the Umayyad period.
Single dots were placed above, beside or below the letters. Diacritical marks are represented by dashes. The ending of verses is indicated by a series of 5 or 6 dashes. The codex is contains large ornamentaled circles to indicate every 10 verses.
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The Aramaic language has fewer consonants than Arabic, so during the 7th century new Arabic letters were created by adding dots to existing letters in order to avoid ambiguities. Further diacritics indicating short vowels were introduced, but are only generally used to ensure the Qur’an was read aloud without mistakes. There are two main types of written Arabic: Classical Arabic – the language of the Qur’an and classical literature.
It differs from Modern Standard Arabic mainly in style and vocabulary, some of which is archaic. All Muslims are expected to recite the Qur’an in the original language, however many rely on translations in order to understand the text. It is the language of the vast majority of written material and of formal TV shows, lectures, etc.
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January 11, istock A surprising number of common English food and beverage words have Arabic backgrounds. Spanish absorbed many Arabic words during the centuries that the Moors occupied the Iberian Peninsula, to AD. Some of these words spread to other European languages, including French.
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Psychologists highlight pitfalls of online dating By Amanda Gardner, Health. Find out what’s happening in the world as it unfolds. The review stresses that websites are a valuable resource for daters — as long they don’t put too much stock in the profiles. Story highlights Dating websites may warp a person’s outlook and expectations, according to a new review One of the weaknesses of online dating is an over reliance on “profiles” The abundance of profiles online also may make daters too picky and judgmental Thanks to the proliferation of online dating, would-be couples are now almost as likely to meet via email or a virtual “wink” as they are through friends and family.
In , when the Internet was still in its infancy, less than 1 percent of Americans met their partners through personal ads or matchmaking services. Single people have more options than ever before, as websites such as Match. But that may have a downside. According to a new review of online dating written by a team of psychologists from around the country, dating websites may warp a person’s outlook and expectations in ways that can actually lower the chances of building a successful relationship.
It allows people access to potential partners they otherwise would not have,” says Eli J. Although most dating websites feature photos and detailed, searchable profiles covering everything from personality traits to likes and dislikes, this information isn’t necessarily useful in identifying a partner, Finkel and his coauthors write. That’s partly because daters don’t always know what they want in a mate — even though they generally think they do.
Besides spreading the religion of Islam, the conquerers introduced written and spoken Arabic to the regions under… The Arabic alphabet has 28 letters, all representing consonants, and is written from right to left. Twenty-two of the letters are those of the Semitic alphabet from which it descended, modified only in letter form, and the remaining six letters represent sounds not used in the languages written in the earlier alphabet.
The shape of each letter depends on its position in a word—initial, medial, and final. There is a fourth form of the letter when it is written alone. The letters alif, waw, and ya standing for glottal stop , w, and y, respectively are used to represent the long vowels a, u, and i. A set of diacritical marks developed in the 8th century ce are sometimes used to represent short vowels and certain grammatical endings otherwise left unmarked.
It creates an immediately recognisable identity, one that is founded in an all-embracing philosophical and cosmological approach to the creation of designed and constructed works, contrasting multiplicity and unity. It honours nature in an abstract decorative art, and benefits through its lack of restriction by the constraints of a numerical system. A brief introduction to the history of Arabic or Islamic geometry is set out on the next page together with methods by which those geometries can be readily constructed using the traditional means of a straight edge and a pair of compasses.
These first four illustrations are of Islamic geometric patterns that have been executed on different materials, respectively silver, stone, leather and glazed mosaic, and are commonly considered representative of Islamic design. While not demonstrating the wide variety of geometric treatments to be found in Islamic or Arab geometries, they are here to introduce something of the design character and materials that were used in decoration.
But having said that, I believe it would be useful to begin this page with a note on the understanding we in the West have of Arabic or, perhaps more accurately, Islamic geometrical design as it is a wide field of study and there are many misconceptions about its origins, interpretation and character. The patterns with which we are familiar are to be found within a variety of Islamic cultures, but are often considered to be common to areas of Arab conquest.
At its simplest, Arab scholarship enlarged our comprehension of underlying geometries, and Muslim craftsmen, not all of them Arabs, relied on this body of knowledge in producing their characteristic fields of tiles, mosaic, plaster and wooden patterns that were applied to elements of their buildings. Generally they are seen as two-dimensional surface treatments, though there are examples of three-dimensional work in many areas of the Islamic world, particularly with the muqarnas.